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Syllabi and Readings
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100 Papers in Clinical Psychiatry

Due to copyright and licensing issues, access to these articles is restricted to University of Washington residents, faculty and staff for academic use. In order to download and print some of the articles below you will need to have Adobe Reader installed. To save large files, right click on the file, select "save as", and select the desktop as your destination.


    • *Agid O, Kapur S, Arenovich T, Zipursky RB. Delayed-onset hypothesis of antipsychotic action: a hypothesis tested and rejected. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2003; 60:1228-1235
      This study shows that if antipsychotics don’t have an effect in the first week, they probably never will, and the most pronounced effects are in the first two weeks of treatment.
    • *Andreasen NC, Liu D, Ziebell S, Vora A, Ho BC. Relapse duration, treatment intensity, and brain tissue loss in schizophrenia: a progressive longitudinal MRI study. Am J Psychiatry 2013; 170:609-615
      Important study finding antipsychotics rather than relapses cause brain shrinkage, and suggest using the lowest doses possible
    • *Chouinard G, Jones BD. Neuroleptic-induced supersensitivity psychosis: clinical and pharmacologic characteristics. Am J Psychiatry 1980; 137:16-21
      One of the first papers to introduce the possibility of a neuroleptic-induced supersensitivity psychosis
    • Demjaha A, Murray RM, McGuire PK, Kapur S, Howes OD. Dopamine synthesis capacity in patients with treatment-resistant schizophrenia. Am J Psychiatry 2012; 169:1203-1210
      This paper shows that dopamine dysregulation is not found in those with treatment resistant schizophrenia and thus dopamine antagonists are worthless in these patients
    • *Fletcher PC, Frith CD. Perceiving is believing: a Bayesian approach to explaining the positive symptoms of schizophrenia. Nat Rev Neurosci 2009; 10:48-58
      An extremely clever model uniting Schneider’s first rank symptoms as theory of mind deficits in context of other biological and neuropsychological findings in schizophrenia
    • *Fusar-Poli P, Borgwardt S, Bechdolf A et al. The psychosis high-risk state: a comprehensive state-of-the-art review. JAMA Psychiatry 2013; 70:107-120
      Extremely useful review of the field of prodromal or at-risk mental state
    • *Honer WG, Thornton AE, Chen EYH et al. Clozapine alone versus clozapine and risperidone with refractory schizophrenia. N Engl J Med 2006; 354: 472-482
      CARE study showed adding risperidone to clozapine no more effective than clozapine alone
    • Jones PB, Barnes TR, Davies L et al. Randomized controlled trial of the effect on quality of life of second- vs first-generation antipsychotic drugs in schizophrenia: cost utility of the latest antipsychotic drugs in schizophrenia study (CUtLASS 1) Arch Gen Psychiatry 2006; 63:1079-87
      CUtLASS study was British equivalent of the CATIE using more of the typical antipsychotics and confirming the new drugs cost more and have no additional benefit on quality of life
    • Kahn RS, Fleischhacker WW, Boter H et al. Effectiveness of antipsychotic drugs in first-episode schizophrenia and schizophreniform disorder: an open randomised clinical trial. Lancet 2008; 371:1085-97
      EUFEST study found that first-episode psychosis like chronic schizophrenia responds just as well to the older drugs as the newer drugs
    • *Kane J, Hongfeld G, Singer J, Meltzer H and the Clozaril Collaborative Study Group. Clozapine for the treatment resistant schizophrenic: a double-blind comparison with chlorpromazine. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1988; 45:789-796
      Classic study demonstrating clozapine’s superiority to chlorpromazine in treatment-resistant schizophrenia that led to re-discovery of clozapine in clinical practice
    • *Kapur S. Psychosis as a state of aberrant salience: a framework linking biology, phenomenology, and pharmacology in schizophrenia. Am J Psychiatry 2003; 160:13-23
      A modern classic, this paper describes how the dopamine hypothesis can explain the positive symptoms of schizophrenia
    • *Leff J, Sartorium N, Jablensky A, Korten A, Ernberg G. The International Pilot Study of Schizophrenia: five-year follow-up findings. Psychol Med 1992; 22:131-145
      Five-year follow up of the IPSS which found prognosis of schizophrenia was better in developing countries than in the developed world
    • *Leucht S, Cipriani A, Spineli L et al. Comparative efficacy and tolerability of 15 antipsychotic drugs in schizophrenia: a multiple treatments meta-analysis. Lancet 2013; 382:951-962
      This meta-analysis shows substantial differences in efficacy and side-effect profiles of different antipsychotic agents with clozapine, amisulpride and olanzapine coming out as most effective, and asenapine, lurasidone, and iloperidone coming out as least effective
    • *Lieberman JA, Stroup TS, McEvoy JP et al. Effectiveness of Antipsychotic Drugs in Patients with Chronic Schizophrenia. N Engl J Med 2005; 353:1209-1223
      CATIE study showed olanzapine was more effective than other atypical antipsychotics and ziprasidone less effective, with no difference between typical and atypical antipsychotics
    • *Tiihonen J, Lonngvist J, Wahlbeck K et al. 11-year follow-up of mortality in patients with schizophrenia: a population based cohort study (FIN11 study). Lancet 2009; 374:620-627
      This study found clozapine was associated with reduced morality in comparison to other antipsychotics or no treatment in schizophrenia
    • *Wunderink L, Nieboer RM, Wiersma D, Sytema S, Nienhuis FJ. Recovery in remitted first-episode psychosis at 7 years of follow-up of an early dose reduction/discontinuation or maintenance treatment strategy: long-term follow-up of a 2-year randomized clinical trial. JAMA Psychiatry 2013; 70:913-920
      Controversial study that confirms older data that continued antipsychotic use leads to poorer functional outcomes with better symptom control than discontinuation/early dose reduction


    • Beck AT. The evolution of the cognitive model of depression and its neurobiological correlates. Am J Psychiatry 2008; 165:969-977
      Very readable overview of the cognitive model of depression in a biopsychosocial perspective from the founder of cognitive therapy itself
    • Cipriani A, Furukawa TA, Salanti G et al. Comparative efficacy and acceptability of 12 new-generation antidepressants: a multiple-treatments meta-analysis. Lancet 2009; 373:747-758
      Mirtazapine and venlafaxine are the most efficacious, duloxetine and reboxetine don’t work, and sertraline or citalopram are probably the best first-line agents for depression
    • Fava GA. Can long-term treatment with antidepressant drugs worsen the course of depression? J Clin Psychiatry 2003; 64:123-133
      This paper suggests that antidepressants may be contributing to the poor prognosis for depression!
    • Fava M, Rush AJ. Current status of augmentation and combination treatments for major depressive disorder: a literature review and a proposal for a novel approach to improve practice. Psychother Psychosom 2006; 75:139-153
      This paper from the STAR*D team outlines how to maximize initial response and engagement in treatment and proposes using combined or augmentation strategies much earlier than is the case
    • Harmer CJ, Goodwin GM, Cowen PJ. Why do antidepressants take so long to work? A cognitive neuropsychological model of antidepressant drug action. Br J Psychiatry 2009; 195:102-108
      An attempt at explaining antidepressant action in cognitive neuropsychological terms
    • Kirsch I, Deacon BJ, Huedo-Medina TB, Scoboria A, Moore TJ, Johnson BT. Initial severity and antidepressant benefits: a meta-analysis of data submitted to the Food and Drug Adminstration. PLOS Med 2008; 5:e45 doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.0050045
      The best known study to report from unpublished data that antidepressants are no better than placebo except in the most severe depressive episodes
    • Kuhn R. The treatment of depressive states with G 22355 (imipramine hydrochloride). Am J Psychiatry 1958; 115:459-464
      First paper to describe the use of TCA imipramine and suggest it is particular beneficial in melancholic depression
    • McGrath PJ, Steward JW, Fava M et al. Tranylcypromine versus venlafaxine plus mirtazapine following three failed antidepressant medication trials for depression: a STAR*D report. Am J Psychiatry 2006; 163:1531-1541
      STAR*D report finds response rate after three failed antidepressants is about 14% and that combo of venlafaxine and mirtazapine is easier to use and better tolerated than tranylcypromine
    • Rush AJ, Trivedi MH, Wisniewski SR et al. Bupropion-SR, Sertraline, or Venlafaxine-XR after failure of SSRIs for Depression. N Engl J Med 2005; 354:1231-1242
      STAR*D trial finds only 20% remit after one failed antidepressant, and bupropion, sertraline and venlafaxine are just as bad as each other
    • Trivedi MH, Fava M, Wisniewski SR et al. Medication augmentation after the failure of SSRIs for depression. N Engl J Med 2006; 354:1243-1252
      STAR*D trials finds augmentation strategies all as bad as each other and no better than switching to another agent
    • Trivedi MH, Rush AJ, Wisniewski SR et al. Evaluation of outcomes with citalopram for depression using measurement-based care in STAR*D: implications for clinical practice. Am J Psychiatry 2006; 163: 28-40
      STAR*D study finds remission rates only 30% for first trial of citalopram and that it takes about 6-8 weeks to note remission, longer than previously claimed
    • West ED, Dally PJ. Effects of iproniazid in depressive syndromes. Br Med J 1959; 1:1491-1494
      One of the first papers to report MAOIs are effective especially in atypical depressions


    • Cade JF. Lithium salts in the treatment of psychotic excitement.  Med J Aust 1949; 2:349-352
      Classic paper that first used lithium to treat mania, absolute must read.
    • Cipriani A, Barbui C, Salanti G et al. Comparative efficacy and acceptability of antimanic drugs in acute mania: a multiple-treatments meta-analysis. Lancet 2011; 378:1306-1315
      This meta-analysis finds that antipsychotics are the best treatment for acute mania rather than lithium or mood stabilizers.
    • Cipriani A, Hawton K, Stockton S, Geddes JR. Lithium in the prevention of suicide in mood disorders: updated systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ 2013; 346:f3646
      Updated meta-analysis finds lithium still appears to have anti-suicidal properties
    • Geddes JR, Miklowitz DJ. Treatment of bipolar disorder. Lancet 2013; 381:1672-1682
      Reviews the evidence for pharmacological and psychological treatments in bipolar disorder
    • Janowsky DS, Epstein RS. Playing the manic game –interpersonal maneuvers of the acutely manic patient. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1970; 22:252-26
      Describes the frustrating and destructive maneuvers ‘manic’ patients catch clinicians in. Possibly more relevant to borderline patients, I find this slightly outmoded and offensive, but seems well-loved by more seasoned psychiatrists of all stripes
    • McKnight RF, Adida M, Budge K, Stockton S, Goodwin GM, Geddes JR. Lithium toxicity profile: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet 2012; 379:721-728
      Toxicity of lithium has been overblown with ESRD being a rare complication. Li also causes hyperparathyroidism and checking Ca periodically is recommended

      Miklowitz DJ, Otto MW, Frank E et al. Psychosocial treatments for bipolar depression: a 1-year randomized trial from the Systematic Treatment Enhanced Program. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2007; 64:419-426
      Shows family focused therapy, IPSRT and CBT as useful therapies in treatment of bipolar depression
    • Nierenberg AA, Ostacher MJ, Calabrese JR et al. Treatment-resistant bipolar depression: a STEP-BD equipoise randomized effectiveness trial of antidepressant augmentation with lamotrigine, inositol, or risperidone. Am J Psychiatry 2006; 163:210-216
      Bipolar depression is hard to treatment and augmenting antidepressants with lamictal, inositol or risperidone are just as bad as each other
    • Sachs GS, Nierenberg AA, Calabrese JR et al. Effectiveness of adjunctive antidepressant treatment for bipolar depression. N Engl J Med 2007; 356:1711-1722
      STEP-BD study found antidepressants don’t work in bipolar disorder
    • Geddes, JR, Goodwin GM, Rendell K et al. Lithium plus valproate combination therapy versus monotherapy for relapse prevention in bipolar I disorder (BALANCE): a randomized open-label trial. Lancet 2010; 375:385-395
      Lithium is better than valproate, and the benefit of combining the two isn’t clear
    • Yonkers KA. Management of bipolar disorder during pregnancy and the postpartum period. Am J Psychiatry 2004; 161:608-620
      Nice review of management of bipolar disorder in women


    • Harris EC, Barraclough B. Suicide as an outcome for mental disorders. A meta-analysis. Br J Psychiatry 1997; 170:205-228
      Meta-analysis finds mental disorders except for mental retardation and dementia increase risk of suicide
    • Gitlin MJ. A psychiatrist’s reaction to a patient’s suicide. Am J Psychiatry; 156:1630-1634
      Discusses the experience of losing a patient to suicide
    • Mann JJ, Apter A, Bertolote J et al. Suicide prevention strategies: a systematic review. JAMA 2005; 294:2064-2074
      A comprehensive but biased review of suicide prevention strategies that places too much emphasis on clinical approaches and not enough on means prevention but still worth reading
    • Rosen DH. Suicide survivors. A follow-up study of persons who survived jumping from the Golden Gate and San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridges. West J Med 1975; 122:289-294
      Classic study interviewing survivors of the Golden Gate Bridge attempted suicides argues for suicide barriers. Must read.
    • Stone M, Laughren T, Jones ML et al. Risk of suicidality in clinical trials of antidepressants in adults: analysis of proprietary data submitted to US Food and Drug Administration. BMJ 2009; 339:b2880
      Extensive meta-analysis of clinical trials showing that risk of suicidality is age-related, and antidepressants may reduce suicides in the elderly


    • Abramowitz JS, Taylor S, McKay D. Obsessive-compulsive disorder. Lancet 2009; 374:491-499
      Summarizes cognitive-behavioral and biological aspects of OCD and its treatment
    • Ehlers A, Clark DM. A cognitive model of posttraumatic stress disorder. Behav Res Therapy 2000; 38:319-345
      An insightful and extremely useful model for understanding chronic PTSD from the cognitive perspective
    • Hoge CW, McGurk D, Thomas JL, Cox AL, Engel CC, Castro CA. Mild traumatic brain injury in U.S. soldiers returning from Iraq. N Engl J Med 2008; 31:453-463
      mTBI is common in OIF Veterans and often highly comorbid with PTSD symptoms
    • Roy-Byrne PP, Craske MG, Stein MB. Panic disorder. Lancet 2006; 368:1023-1032
      Concise overview of panic and its treatment
    • Summerfield D. The invention of posttraumatic stress disorder and the social usefulness of a psychiatric category. Br Med J 2001; 322:95-98
      Provocative discussion of PTSD as a sociopolitical construct


    • Groves JE. Taking care of the hateful patient. N Engl J Med 1978; 299:883-887
      Classic paper describes 4 ‘hateful’ patients in the medical setting
    • Macdonald JM. The threat to kill. Am J Psychiatry 1963; 120:125-130
      Excellent paper discusses homicidal ideation, and describes the triad of childhood firesetting, bedwetting and cruelty to animals being linked to later sadistic/antisocial behavior
    • Leichsenring F, Leibing E, Kruse J, New AS, Leweke F. Borderline personality disorder. Lancet 2011; 377:74-84
      Comprehensive review of borderline personality disorder and its treatment. The drugs don’t really work.
    • Vaillant GE. The beginning of wisdom is never calling a patient a borderline; or, the clinical management of immature defenses in the treatment of individuals with personality disorders. J Psychother Pract Res 1992; 1:117-134
      Classic, extremely well written and useful discussion of managing different defenses in difficult patients


    Treasure J, Claudino AM, Zucker N. Eating disorders. Lancet 2010; 375:583-93
    Nice overview on biology of eating disorders and review of evidence for different therapies

    Yager J, Andersen AE. Anorexia nervosa. N Engl J Med 2005; 353:1481-1488
    Concise summary of management of anorexia nervosa


    • Anton RF, O’Malley SS, Ciraulo DA et al. Combined pharmacotherapies and behavioral interventions for alcohol dependence: the COMBINE study: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 2006; 295:2003-2017
      Naltrexone is better than acamprosate for alcohol dependence when combined with CBT
    • Arsenault L, Cannon M, Poulton R, Murray R, Caspi A, Moffitt TE. Cannabis use in adolescence and risk for adult psychosis: longitudinal prospective study. BMJ 2002; 325:1212-1213
      First prospective longitudinal study to establish adolescent cannabis use as a risk factor for psychosis
    • Johns A. Psychiatric effects of cannabis. Br J Psychiatry 2001; 178:116-122
      Reviews the psychiatric complications of cannabis use
    • Khantzian EH. The self-medication hypothesis of addiction. Am J Psychiatry 1985; 142:1259-1264
      This psychodynamic view of addiction as self-medication has proved enduring and influential in clinical practice and popular culture despite no supporting evidence
    • Koston TR, O’Connor PG. Management of drug and alcohol withdrawal. N Engl J Med 2003; 348:1786-1795
      Comprehensive overview of withdrawal syndromes and their management
    • Laaksonen E, Koski-Jannes A, Salspuro M, Ahtinen H, Alho H. A randomized, multicenter, open-label, comparative trial of disulfiram, naltrexone and acamprosate in the treatment of alcohol dependence. Alcohol Alcohol 2008; 43:53-61
      Disulfiram may actually be better than naltrexone or acamprosate when combined with behavior therapy in alcohol dependence
    • Martensen-Larsen O. Treatment of alcoholism with a sensitising drug. Lancet 1948; 252:1004-1005
      First report of use of Antabuse in the treatment of alcoholism.
    • McKetin R, Lubman DI, Baker AL, Dawe S, Ali RL. Dose-related psychotic symptoms in chronic methamphetamine users: evidence from a prospective longitudinal study. JAMA Psychiatry 2013; 70:319-324
      First prospective longitudinal study to establish causal relationship and dose-dependence between methamphetamine use and psychosis
    • Project MATCH Research Group. Matching alcoholism treatments to client heterogeneity: project MATCH three-year drinking outcomes. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 1998 22:1300-1311
      12-step facilitation, CBT, and motivational interviewing are all beneficial in alcoholism, with patient characteristics helping to match best treatment. Angry alcoholics do better with MI.
    • Volkow ND, Swanson JM. Clinical practice: adult attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder. N Engl J Med 2013; 369:1935-1944
      Up-to-date review of adult ADD


    • Baron-Cohen S. The extreme-male brain theory of autism. Trends Cogn Sci 2002; 6:248-254
      This paper gives a compelling account of autism as the extreme variant of the ‘male brain’
    • Bowlby J. The making and breaking of affectional bonds. I. Aetiology and psychopathology in the light of attachment theory. An expanded version of the Fiftieth Maudsley Lecture, delivered before the Royal College of Psychiatrist, 19 November 1976. Br J Psychiatry 1977; 130:201-210
      Very readable paper summarizes key findings of attachment theory and its relevance to psychopathology throughout the lifespan
    • Jensen PS, Arnold LD, Swanson JM et al. 3-year follow-up of the NIMH MTA Study. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2007; 56:989-1002
      Important ADHD study showed benefits of stimulant treatment did not persist after initial phase of treatment compared with behavior therapy
    • March J, Silva S, Petrycki S et al. Fluoxetine, cognitive-behavioral therapy, and their combination for adolescences with depression: Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS) randomized controlled trial. JAMA 2004; 292:807-820
      TADS study showed combination of CBT and fluoxetine was best treatment for adolescent depression
    • Rutter M, Sroufe LA. Developmental psychopathology: concepts and challenges. Dev Psychopathol 2000; 12:265-296
      The father of child psychiatry outlines the developmental approach to psychopathology
    • Sikich L, Frazier JA, McClellan J et al. Double-blind comparison of first- and second-generation antipsychotics in early-onset schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder: findings from the treatment of early-onset schizophrenia spectrum disorders (TEOSS) study. Am J Psychiatry 2008; 165:1420-31
      TEOSS study finds molindone (now defunct) is just as good as the newer drugs in early onset psychotic disorders


    • Burns A, Jacoby R, Levy R. Psychiatric phenomena in Alzheimer’s disease. IV: Disorders of behavior. Br J Psychiatry 1990; 157:86-94
      Outlines the most common behavioral disturbances in Alzheimer’s from a sample of 178 patients, and finds features of Klüver-Bucy syndrome occur more commonly than is realized
    • Howard RJ, Juszszak E, Ballard CG et al. Donepezil for the treatment of agitation in Alzheimer’s Disease. N Engl J Med 2007; 357: 1382-1392
      Donepezil doesn’t help agitation in context of Alzheimer’s disease
    • Howard RJ, McShane R, Lindesay J et al. Donepezil and memantine for moderate-to-severe Alzheimer’s Disease. N Engl J Med 2012; 366:893-903
      There is a small functional benefit to donepezil or memantine in moderate-to-severe Alzheimer’s with no difference between the two and no additional benefit of the combination
    • Inouye SK. Delirium in older persons. N Engl J Med 2006; 354:1157-1165
      Nice overview of diagnosis, causes and management of delirium in the elderly
    • McKeith IG, Dickson DW, Lowe J et al. Diagnosis and management of dementia with Lewy bodies. Neurology 2005; 12:1863-1872
      Most recent guidelines for diagnosis and management of LBD
    • Saczynski JS, Marcanonio ER, Quach L, Fong TG, Gross A, Inouye SK, Jones RN. Cognitive trajectories after postoperative delirium. N Engl J Med 2012; 367:30-39
      Reminder that most patients post-delirium do not return to baseline and experience significant decline in cognitive functioning
    • Schneider LS, Tariot PN, Dagerman KS et al. Effectiveness of atypical antipsychotic drugs in patients with Alzheimer’s disease. N Engl J Med 2006; 355:1528-1538
      CATIE-AD study compares antipsychotics for Alzheimer’s – they are all as bad as each other and do more harm than good


    • Appelbaum PS. Assessment of patients’ competence to consent to treatment. N Engl J Med 2007; 357:1834-1840
      Definitive review of decisional capacity assessment for clinicians
    • Barsky AJ, Saintford R, Rogers MP, Borus JF. Nonspecific medication side-effects and the nocebo phenomenon. JAMA 2002; 287:622-627
      Describes the nocebo effect as a common occurrence in anxious patients, and a cognitive model for understanding its development
    • Beach SR, Celano CM, Noseworthy PA, Januzzi JL, Huffman JC. QTc prolongation, Torsades de pointes, and psychotropic medications. Psychosomatics 2013; 54:1-13
      Comprehensive up-to-date review on QTc prolongation and psychotropic drugs. Turns out we vastly overestimate the significance of cardiac risk of drugs.
    • Block SD. Psychological issues in end-of-life care. J Palliat Med 2006; 9:751-772
      Comprehensive review of psychological problems and psychiatric disorders at the end-of-life
    • Boyer EW, Shannon M. The serotonin syndrome. N Engl J Med 2005; 352:1112-1120
      Comprehensive review of serotonin syndrome comparing it to other differentials
    • Eastwood S, Bisson JI. Management of factitious disorders: a systematic review. Psychother Psychosom 2008; 77:209-218
      Systematic review of case reports and series of factitious disorder highlighting bleak prognosis and difficulties keeping these patients engaged in care.
    • Groves JE. Management of the borderline patient on a medical or surgical ward: the psychiatric consultant’s role. Int J Psychiatry Med 1975; 6:337-48
      Practical suggestions on how to manage difficult patients in the medical setting
    • Kayser MS, Kohler CG, Dalmau J. Psychiatric manifestations of paraneoplastic disorders. Am J Psychiatry 2010; 167:1039-1050
      Discusses the emerging field of autoimmune-mediated neuropsychiatric disorders
    • McDermott BE, Feldman MD. Malingering in the medical setting. Psychiatr Clin N Am 2007; 30:645-662
      Detailed review of malingering and its detection
    • Stone J, Carson A, Sharpe M. Functional symptoms and signs in neurology: assessment and diagnosis. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2005; 76(Suppl I): i2-i12
    • Stone J, Carson A, Sharpe M. Functional symptoms and signs in neurology: management. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2005; 76(Suppl I): i13-21
      These two papers discuss the assessment and management of conversion disorder including examination maneuvers for eliciting functional neurology
    • Strawn JR, Keck Jr PE, Caroff SN. Neuroleptic malignant syndrome. Am J Psychiatry 2007; 164:870-876
      Up to date review of neuroleptic malignant syndrome


    • Anjala AV, Smetana GW. Medical evaluation of patients undergoing electroconvulsive therapy. N Engl J Med 2009; 360:1437-1444
      Discusses the medical workup and preparation of patients for ECT
    •  Rose D, Fleischmann P, Wykes T, Leese M, Bindman J. Patients’ perspectives on electroconvulsive therapy: systematic review. BMJ 2003; 326:1363
      This user-led study reveals that autobiographical memory problems persist more commonly than is believed
    • UK ECT Review Group. Efficacy and safety of electroconvulsive therapy in depressive disorders: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet 2003; 361:799-808
      The most comprehensive meta-analysis of ECT for depression showing its efficacy in depressive states


    • Kendell RE, Cooper JE, Gourlay AJ, Copeland JRM, Sharpe L, Gurland BJ. Diagnostic criteria of American and British psychiatrists. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1971; 25: 123-130
      The UK-US diagnostic study showed American Psychiatrists diagnosed more schizophrenia than their British counterparts in every case, including cases of depression, manic-depressive illness and even personality disorder, establishing importance of reliability in psychiatric diagnosis
    • Murphy JM. Psychiatric labeling in cross-cultural perspective. Science 1976; 191:1019-1028
      This paper describes the concept of madness or mental illness existing across cultures dispelling mental illness as the result of simply labeling deviance or a convenient myth
    • Rosenhan DL. On being sane in insane places. Science 1973: 179:250-258
      This classic study questioned the validity of psychiatric diagnosis by having pseudopatients get admitted to psychiatric hospital who then remained there despite no further reports of symptoms of mental illness!


    • Engel GL. The need for a new medical model: a challenge for biomedicine. Science 1977; 196:129-36
      This classic paper popularizes the biopsychosocial model and the application of general systems theory to medicine.
    • Kandel ER. A New intellectual framework for psychiatry. Am J Psychiatry 1998; 155:457-469
      Kandel suggests firmly rooting medicine of the mind in the biology of the brain
    • Kendler KS. Explanatory models for psychiatric illness. Am J Psychiatry 2008; 165:695-702
      Kendler proposes psychiatric disorders are understood best pluralistically with multiple levels of explanation and biological understanding will not supplant more macro level understanding of disorders but enhance it
    • Szasz T. The myth of mental illness. Am Psychol 1960; 15:113-118
      This classic article of the book with the same title claims because the mind is a metaphor, it cannot be diseased, and thus mental illness is a myth. Szasz prefers to conceive of psychiatric disorders as problems in living. Given the cachet of these views in popular culture, this is essential reading.

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